A healthy environment is mandatory to for the survival of living things. Without a healthy environment non-living things also can’t exist. To have a healthy environment, a balanced ecosystem is essential. Without a balanced ecosystem, healthy environment is not possible. An ecosystem is a geographical area of a variable size where both living and non-living settings co-exist, interact & affect one another. Ecosystem encompasses all the parts of a living environment, including the plants and animals, and the non-living components, such as water, air and solar energy. Ecosystems can vary greatly in size. Some examples of small ecosystems are tidal pools, a home garden, or the stomach of a cow. Larger ecosystems might encompass lakes, agricultural fields, or stands of forests. Landscape-scale ecosystems encompass larger regions, and may include different terrestrial (land) and aquatic (water) communities. Ultimately, all of Earth's life and its physical environment could be considered to represent an entire ecosystem, known as the biosphere.
Entities of the ecosystem:
An ecosystem is based on two entities. One is living things and another is non-living things. Living things are plant, human being, animals and insects. And non-living things are land, water, temperature, air, rock, solar energy. We can divide the entities of ecosystem in 4 parts.
- Hydrosphere (water)
- Lithosphere (rock & soil)
- Atmosphere (air)
- Biosphere (human & other living organism)
Biosphere can be divided into two parts:
- Producers are autotrophic photosynthetic organisms. They can produce their own food. In terrestrial ecosystems, producers are predominantly green plants but inn freshwater and marine ecosystems, dominant producers are algae.
- Consumers are heterotrophic organisms that depend on producers for food. Among 4 types of consumers herbivores feed directly on green plants which are primary consumers. Carnivores feed on other animals and are secondary or tertiary consumers. Omnivores feed on both plants and animals; for example, humans eat both leafy vegetables and beef. Decomposers are organisms of decay and they are mostly bacteria and fungi.
There are some cycles in ecosystem. Without those cycles ecosystem will collapse. Those cycles are:
- Oxygen Cycle
- Hydrological Cycle
- Nitrogen Cycle
- Phosphate Cycle
- Biogeochemical cycle
If single of these cycle breaks down, whole ecosystem will break down.
Energy Flow and food chains in ecosystem:
The sun is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all life. From solar energy producers makes food and this energy flows to others by food chain & food web. Food chains indicate who eats whom in an ecosystem. It represents one path of energy flow through an ecosystem. Ecosystems have numerous interconnected food chains. In a food chain, each level of producer and consumers is a tropic level. Some primary consumers feed on plants and make grazing food chains; others feed on detritus.
Different ecosystems of
- Aquatic Ecosystem
- Soil Ecosystem
- Fresh water
Marine ecosystem of
The location of the landward boundary of the coastal zone is a function of three basic geophysical processes: tidal fluctuations; salinity; and risk for cyclone and storm surges. The coastal zone of Bangladesh, affected by these processes, covers an area of 47,201 km, or 32% of the country, being the landmass of 19 districts. Around 35 million people, representing 29% of the population, live in the coastal zone. Many of the coastal inhabitants are poor, and the population is exposed to both natural disasters and man-made hazards. Climate change and sea-level rise, induced by global warming, also compromise the ecological stability of the coastal zone.
The coastline is 710 km long, composed of the interface of various ecological and economic systems, including mangroves, estuaries, islands, accreted land, beaches, a peninsula, rural settlements, urban and industrial areas, and ports. The territorial, contiguous and exclusive economic zones extend 12, 18 and 200 nautical miles respectively out into the
Lentic water ecosystems (standing water) cover around 3% of the coastal zone area. In combination with lotic water systems (running water), they support an extremely rich and diverse fish fauna: 260 spp. of indigenous freshwater, bony fish belonging to 145 genera and 55 families have been recorded so far. In addition, these ecosystems support a very large population of commercially important freshwater shrimp.
- Lentic: slow-moving water, including pools, ponds and lakes.
- Lotic: rapidly-moving water, for example streams and rivers.
- Wetlands: areas where the soil is saturated or inundated for at least part of the time.
The majority of the natural ecosystems of
Soil ecosystem in
Before knowing about the soil ecosystem we should know about what is soil. Soil is the product of organism and climate acting on rocks. It is a complex, intimate mixture of minerals, organic matter, and organisms. Many kind of organisms (e.g. plants, microbes, vertebrate and invertebrate animals) are part of soil ecosystem. Plants are the ultimate source of carbon, which is a critical structural component of soil and source energy fueling the processes that occur with in the soils. Understanding the role of the soil in the farm ecosystem, knowing how to manage the land, are critical and difficult tasks facing the organic farmer.
Soil ecosystem of
Forest ecosystem in
A forest ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of mostly plants, animals and micro-organisms in forest area and functions together with all of non-living physical factors of the environment. Logically, trees are an important component of forest research but the wide variety of other life forms and abiotic components in most forests means that other elements, such as wildlife or soil nutrients are often the focal point. Among forest ecosystems of
Ecosystem of urban area:
An ecosystem of urban society consists of several species. Cities are embedded in a larger ecosystem. But like any life supporting system; a city must need basic ecosystem needs. This is accomplished through the connections between city and surrounding environments. Ecosystem of big cities in
Ecosystem of rural area:
In rural area of
Ecosystem: State of equilibrium ???
If we look see the whole scenario of ecosystem in
In rural area, ecosystem is not in balance too. Number of land is becoming less. Productivity of land is going down. People are cutting down the forests. The nestling place of bird & living place of wildlife are being destroyed. Many species have already faced extinction. Many more species are on the way to extinction. Chemicals and pesticides that are used in agriculture contaminates with river & pond water. As a result water gets polluted and people suffer from different disease and often die if they use polluted water.
Considering all these factors, we can say that ecosystem in
It is well recognized to both the scientific and negotiating community that
- Ensuring sustainability
- Having stewardship
- Using sound science
The ecosystem concept is the heart of managing sustainability. When we try to safeguard species or manage living resource so that they are sustainable, we must focus on the ecosystem and make sure that it continues to function. The strategic goals and objectives of future coping mechanisms are to reduce unfavorable effects of climate change including variability and extreme events and promote sustainable development. Future coping strategies and mechanisms are suggested based on existing process and practices keeping main essence of adaptation science which is a process to adjust with adverse situation of climate change. Sharing knowledge and experiences of existing situation is a great way for stewardship. Development of techniques for transferring knowledge and experiences from one area/ecosystem is also necessary. If stewardship & application of science doesn’t work together, it’s not possible to make future sustainable and restore state of equilibrium in ecosystem.